Plants of Toronto

  • I used multiple data sources to compile a list of vascular plants for the greater metropolitan Toronto region. This data not only includes taxonomic information, but also global and national status ranks, growth from, native status, threatened status, abundance estimates and year of first observation for non-indigenous species.
  • The list includes 1937 taxa from 146 families, of which 822 are non-indigenous. The majority of native species were ranked as abundant and widespread both globally and provincially. However, non-indigenous species ranks were bimodal, likely to be either extremely restricted in the province, or very widespread.


Cadotte, M. W. 2021. The list of vascular plants for the city of Toronto. Ecological Solutions and Evidence, 2: e12036

Updated (live) version:

This version was updated June 2021 and includes about 40 additional (mostly) cultivated street trees from the Toronto street tree inventory.